If you are like many Americans, you likely have an employer-sponsored retirement plan.  This is the second article in a three-part series about the basics of 401k, 403b和固定收益计划.

Retirement plans established under Section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, commonly referred to as 403(b) plans or “tax-sheltered annuities,” have become a popular type of employer-sponsored retirement plan.


403(b)计划是一个退休储蓄计划, sponsored by a tax-exempt organization or public school, that offers significant tax benefits while helping you plan for the future. 你通过工资扣除来为计划做贡献, which can make it easier for you to save for retirement. One important feature of a 403(b) plan is your ability to make pre-tax contributions to the plan. Pre-tax means that your contributions are deducted from your pay and transferred to the 403(b) plan before federal (and most state) income taxes are calculated. This reduces your current taxable income — you don’t pay income taxes on the amount you contribute, or any investment gains on your contributions until you receive payments from the plan.

You may also be able to make Roth contributions to your 403(b) plan. Roth 403(b) contributions are made on an after-tax basis, just like Roth 爱尔兰共和军 contributions. 与403(b)计划的税前捐款不同, there’s no up-front tax benefit — your contributions are deducted from your pay and transferred to the plan after taxes are calculated. But a distribution from your Roth 403(b) account is entirely free from federal income tax if the distribution is qualified. In general, a distribution is qualified only if it satisfies both of the following requirements:

  • 它是在五年的等待期结束后制作的
  • The payment is made after you turn 59½, become disabled, or die

一般, 你最多可以捐助19美元,500 ($26,000 if you’re age 50 or older) to a 403(b) plan in 2020 (unless your plan imposes lower limits). 如果你的计划允许, 你已经服役15年以上了, you may also be able to make special catch-up contributions to the plan, 除了50岁的补习贡献.

如果您的计划允许罗斯403(b)贡献, you can split your contribution between pre-tax and Roth contributions any way you wish.


While a 403(b) plan can make you wait up to a year to participate, many plans let you to begin contributing with your first paycheck. 有些计划还提供自动登记. 如果你已经被自动登记, make sure to check that your default contribution rate and investments are appropriate for your circumstances.


雇主不需要为403(b)计划缴费, but many will match all or part of your contributions. Try to contribute as much as necessary to get the maximum matching contribution from your employer. This is essentially free money that can help you pursue your retirement goals. Note that your plan may require up to six years of service before your employer matching contributions are fully vested (that is,属于你), 虽然大多数计划都有一个更快的兑现时间表.

Should I make pre-tax or Roth contributions (if allowed)?

If you think you’ll be in a higher tax bracket when you retire, 罗斯403(b)的贡献可能更有吸引力, since you’ll effectively lock in today’s lower tax rates (and future withdrawals will generally be tax-free). 然而, if you think you’ll be in a lower tax bracket when you retire, pre-tax 403(b) contributions may be more appropriate because your contributions reduce your taxable income now. Your investment horizon and projected investment results are also important factors.


  • Your contributions, pre-tax and Roth, are always 100% vested (i.e.,属于你).
  • 如果你的计划允许贷款, you may be eligible to borrow up to one half of your vested 403(b) account (to a maximum of $50,如果你需要钱的话. 由于冠状病毒援助, 救援, 以及《e世博官网》, 贷款上限为100,000 or 100% of your vested account balance may be allowed between March 27, 2020, 和9月22日, 2020.
  • You may also be able to make a hardship withdrawal if you have an immediate and heavy financial need. But this should be a last resort — hardship distributions are generally taxable to you.
  • Distributions from your plan before you turn 59½ (55 in some cases), may be subject to a 10% early distribution penalty unless an exception applies. 由于关怀法案, 取款不超过100美元,000 may be allowed in 2020 for qualified individuals affected by COVID-19. Individuals will be able to spread the associated income over three years for income tax purposes and will have up to three years to reinvest withdrawn amounts.
  • You may be eligible for an income tax credit of up to $1,为你的贡献金额, 取决于你的收入.
  • Your assets are generally fully protected in the event of your, or your employer’s, bankruptcy.
  • While your participation in a 403(b) plan has no impact on your ability to contribute to an 爱尔兰共和军 (Roth or traditional), it could impact your ability to make deductible contributions to a traditional 爱尔兰共和军.
  • Many 403(b) plans let you direct the investment of your account. Your employer provides a choice of funding arrangements (typically, mutual funds or annuity contracts issued by an insurance company). But it’s your responsibility to choose the investments most suitable for your retirement objectives.

If you missed the first article in our three-part series about 401(k)计划基础知识,你可以在这里找到.


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